Capital Budgeting is a process of evaluating and selecting long-term investments

Capital Budgeting is a process of evaluating and selecting long-term investments
Capital Budgeting is a process of evaluating and selecting long-term investments that are consistent with maximizing company goals. Definition of Capital Budgeting “Capital Budgeting is the Process of evaluating and selecting long-term investment consistencies with the firm’s goal of owner wealth maximization”. Investment also means current expenditure and the expected return on those expenditures will only be received more than one year later.
The definition of Capital Budgeting is as follows: “Capital Budgeting involves the entire process of planning whose returns are expected to extend beyond one year” (Chuka Info).
As a consequence, companies need certain procedures to analyze and select several investment alternatives that exist. The decision regarding investment is difficult because it requires an assessment of the situation in the future, so assumptions that are based on estimates of the situation that most closely might be possible, both internal and external situations of the company are needed.
The investment must be calculated in accordance with the company’s cash flow and must be the most appropriate decision to avoid the risk of loss on the investment. “As time passes, fixed assets may become oblique or may require an overhaul; at these points, too, financial decisions may be required “. Companies usually make various alternatives or variations to invest in the long term, namely in the form of additional fixed assets such as land, machinery and equipment. These assets are potential assets, which are potential sources of income and reflect the value of a company.
Capital budgeting and financial decisions are treated separately. If the proposed investment has been determined to be accepted, the financial manager then chooses the best financing method.
A budget is a detailed plan that projects cash inflows and outflows over several periods in the future. Capital budget is an outline of fixed-asset expenditure plans. Capital budgeting is a comprehensive process of analyzing projects and determining which are included in the capital budget.
The process of collecting, evaluating, selecting, and determining investment alternatives that will provide income for the company for a period of more than 1 year.
The Importance of Budgeting
1. Decision of capital deployment will affect for a long time so that the company loses its flexibility.
2. Effective capital budgeting will increase the timeliness and quality of adding assets.
3. Capital expenditure is very important
Basic Principles of the Capital Budgeting Process
Capital budgeting is basically the application of the principle that says that a company must produce output or conduct business activities in such a way that the product’s marginal revenue is the same as its marginal cost.
This principle in the framework of capital budgeting means that companies must make additional investments in such a way that the return on investment is equal to the cost of the add.
The list of various investment projects from highest to lowest returns reflects the company’s need for capital for investment.
The incremental costs from the various investment lists provide a clue about the company’s efforts to obtain additional capital to finance investment. Cost of capital added means a number of costs that must be borne by the company to obtain funds from outside (for example borrowing or selling shares and the cost of the opportunity / opportunity cost of the funds that can be obtained
Project Type
Independent project: a project or investment that is independent (will not affect other project proposals).
Mutually exclusive project: a project that has the same function (selecting a project will eliminate the possibility of other projects).
Availability of Funds
If the fund is NOT LIMITED, then the company can select all independent projects that are in accordance with the expected expected return.
If funds are LIMITED, the company needs to do capital rationing by allocating funds only to projects that provide maximum return
Capital Budgeting Process
The Capital Budgeting process consists of 5 interrelated steps, namely:

(1) Making a Proposal
Capital goods budgeting proposals are made at all levels in a business organization.
To stimulate the flow of ideas, many companies offer cash awards for several proposals adopted.
(2) Study and Analysis
Capital goods budgeting proposals are formally reviewed in order to (a) achieve the company’s main objectives and plans and most importantly (b) to evaluate their economic capabilities. The proposed costs and estimated benefits are converted into an appropriate cash flow. Various capital budgeting techniques can be applied to the cash flow to calculate the level of return on investment. Various aspects of risk are associated with the proposal to be evaluated. After the economic analysis has been made complete, it is accompanied by additional data and recommendations aimed at decision makers.
(3) Decision Making The amount of funds spent and the importance of capital goods budgeting illustrates the specific level of organization that makes budgeting decisions. Companies usually delegate the authority of capital goods budgeting according to the amount of money spent. In general, the board of directors provides the final decision on a certain amount of capital expenditure budgeting
(4) Implementation When a proposal has been approved and the funds are ready, the implementation phase starts immediately. For small expenses, budgeting is made and direct payments are made. But for large amounts of budgeting, strict supervision is needed.

(5) Follow Up After being implemented it is necessary to monitor during the operational phase of the project.
Comparison of existing costs and expected profits from various previous projects is very vital. When the costs incurred exceed the stipulated budget, immediate action must be taken to stop it, whether by increasing benefits or possibly stopping the project. Every step in the process is important, especially at the stage of study and analysis, and decision making (steps 2 and 3) which requires the most time and energy. The final step, follow-up, is also important but is often ignored. The step was taken to maintain the company to be able to improve the accuracy of the estimated cash flow.
Types of Investment
Investment can be carried out by the company depending on the company’s basic motives, namely the higher rate of return on the investment. These investments consist of various types that are tailored to the objectives of the company.
The investment definition is as follows: “The commitment of funds to one of more assets that will be held over some future time period”. The definition means that investment is a commitment of a number of funds to become one or more assets that will be carried out in a certain period in the future. Next Jones classifies the types of investment as follows: a. Financial Assets. Pieces of paper evidencing a claim on some issues. Real Assets. Physical assets, such as gold or real estate. Marketable Securities. Financial assets that are easily and cheaply traded in organized markets.
Rationalization of Capital
The problem of capital rationalization (capital rationing) will arise if there are limited funds available and faced with a portfolio of investments. Therefore we need to choose a number of investment alternatives that can be achieved from the available budget with a fairly high level of profit. For this reason, two general characteristics of the various investments need to be considered, including the following: a. Independent projects are projects whose cash flow is not related or independent of one project to another.
Acceptance of one project for some reason will not eliminate the other project. If a company has a lot of budget funds available to invest, acceptance criteria for the project will be easier. All investment choices that generate the greatest return will be immediately accepted. B. Mutually exclusive project is a project that has the same function and competes with each other. Acceptance of a project will eliminate other equivalent projects.
Cash Flow and Investment Methods
a. Initial Investment
The initial investment limit is very relevant to the amount of cash out flow that is considered when evaluating the prospective budgeting of capital goods. Initial investment (initial investment) is carried out at zero time (time zero), ie the time when the budget is issued. The initial investment is calculated by reducing all cash inflow that occurs at time zero with all cash outflows that occur at time zero. The basic formula for determining initial investment is the cost of purchasing a new asset plus the cost of the installation minus the sales tax on the old asset.
The basic format of determining Initial Investment is as follows: “The basic Format for Determining Initial Investment Installed cost of new assets = Cost of new assets + installation costs – after-tax proceeds from sale of sold assets “. With the initial investment will affect and will change the Net Working Capital (NWC) of a company. If a company intends to buy vessels in the context of expansion, both the level of production, or the level of cash, accounts receivable, inventory, and trade debt will increase.The difference between changes in current assets and changes in current debt is a change in Net Working Capital.In general, if current assets increase greater than current debt will result in an increase in NWC, and vice versa.
b. Cash flow
One important thing in the matter of investment policy is to estimate the expenditure of money that will be received from the investment in the future. To evaluate various alternative capital / investment goods budgeting, companies must determine the appropriate cash flow, namely data on the net cash flow of an investment. For the purpose of valuing an investment that is fully financed by its own capital net cash flow (cash flow) is before the depreciation charge and calculated after tax.
However, if financed with loan capital, net cash flow is before being charged with depreciation, interest and calculated after tax. Further understanding of cash flow “The neutral net cash, as opposed to accounting net income, that flows into (or out of) a firm during some specified period “. The company’s cash flow analysis can be used as a basis for research to see the extent to which business activities can accumulatively cover the funds invested to drive the company’s operational activities. Every cash flow from a project has a conventional pattern because in it there are 3 basic components namely ( 1) initial investment, (2) Cash inflow and (3) cash flow terminal.
According to (Bambang Rijanto, 1995) every proposal for capital expenditure always contains two kinds of cash flows, namely: 1. Net outflow of cash is what is needed for new investment.2. Net annual cash inflows (Net Annual Inflow of Cash), which is as a result of these new investments, which are often also called “Net Cash Proceeds” or simply by the term “Proceeds”. Cash flow for capital budgeting purposes is defined as cash flow after tax on all company capital. In algebra, the definition is the same as earnings before interest and taxes, minus income tax if the company has debt, plus non-cash depreciation expense.

Understanding the Budget, Relationships, and Benefits of the Budget

Understanding the Budget, Relationships, and Benefits of the Budget
Understanding the budget according to some experts:
Glenn A Welsch defines the budget as follows: “Profit planning and control may be broadly as de fined as systematic and formalized approach for accomplishing the planning, coordinating and controlling responsibility of management”.
According to Gomes (1995, p.87-88), the budget is a document that seeks to reconcile program priorities with projected sources of income. The budget combines an announcement of the organization’s activities or objectives for a specified period of time with information about the funds needed for the activity or to achieve that goal.
According to Mulyadi (2001, p. 488), the budget is a quantitative stated work plan that is measured in standard monetary units and other units of measurement which cover a period of one year.
According to Supriyono (1990, p.15 on Web Education Sharing Knowledge), budgeting is a corporate financial planning that is used as a basis for controlling (controlling) corporate finance for the coming period.
According to Garrison, Norren and Brewer (2007: 4), “A budget is a detailed plan regarding the acquisition and use of financial and other resources over a certain period of time”.
According to M. Nafarin (2004: 12), Budget is a written plan regarding the activities of an organization which is stated quantitatively and generally in units of money for a certain period of time “. According to Herawati and Sunarto (2004: 2), ”
From some of the above meanings, the budget (budget) can be interpreted as a plan that is arranged systematically in the form of numbers and expressed in monetary units which include all of the company’s activities for a certain period in the future.
Definition of Budgeting
Budgeting is the creation of a plan of activities expressed in financial measures. Budgeting plays an important role in planning, controlling, and making decisions.
Factors That Influence Budgeting
1. Internal factors, namely data, information and experience contained in the company itself, which include:
a). Last year’s sales
b). Company policy
c). Production capacity
d). Workforce owned
e). Facilities
2. External factors, namely data, information and experiences that are outside the company, but are felt to have an influence on the life of the company. these factors include:
a). State of competition
b). Community growth rate
c). Level of community income
d). Community education level
e). Population distribution rate
f). Customs and community relations
g). National and international economic conditions, technological and communication advancements, etc.
Relationship between Budget and Management
Management is defined as a science and art for planning, organizing, directing and directing, coordinating and controlling people and goods, to achieve certain goals that have been set. If the budget function is compared with the management functions, it appears that the budget has a very close relationship with management. Thus, the budget is a management tool to help carry out its functions. Another relationship between the budget and management is in helping management manage the company.
Management must make decisions that benefit the company most, such as choosing goods or services to produce and sell, selecting or selecting customers, determining price levels, production methods, distribution methods, sales terms. In the relationship and the relationship between budget and management that is very close in terms of planning. In this case the budget is useful to help management research, study problems related to the activities to be carried out. At other times, before planning an activity the manager conducts research and observations first. Making a plan will benefit all activities. Especially activities related to financial needs, inventory levels, production facilities, purchasing, advertising, sales, product development and so forth.
Relationship between Budget and Accounting
Accounting is a service activity, its function is to provide quantitative data, especially those of a financial nature, from the economic business unit used in economic decision making, in this case an alternative to a situation. To provide data, each transaction needs to be classified, summarized and then presented in the form of a report. Thus if related to the budget, accounting data is one of the main sources, this is because accounting provides historical and actual financial data that meets the objectives of analysis in developing company plans. Furthermore, budget adjustments must be adjusted to the accounting system contained in the company, especially the classification of transactions in estimates.
The classification of transactions in estimates for the budget must be the same as those in the financial statements, with the intention that they can be compared so that it can be known irregularities that occur.
Relationship between Budget and Statistics and Mathematics
Statistics and mathematics are very necessary to prepare a budget. Accuracy in making estimates in addition to depending on the completeness of the availability of data, also depends on the accuracy of the use of statistical and mathematical methods used to process and analyze the data.

Study the relationship between forests and humans

Study the relationship between forests and humans
Forestry Sciences is the sciences that discuss various matters relating to the management, development and conservation of forests in a sustainable manner. Forests have a close relationship with human problems and community interests. For this reason, it is necessary to study the sciences relating to forestry.
The existing forest is a renewable natural resource that directly or indirectly influences national development. Focused studies need to be conducted to prevent unwanted losses.
Forestry Sciences Arboriculture
Some sciences related to forestry include (According to Webmuara Info Education Paper):
1. Forest Land Science
This knowledge is very much needed in studying the state of the forest floor, where litter, which is organic waste in the form of piles of dry leaves, drying, and various other vegetation residues on the forest floor that has dried and changed from its original color, is an important part of tree life and soil fertility.
2. Dendrology
This science is a combination of taxonomy, ecology and geology which must recognize trees with their characteristics and give names and classify with the help of the science of morphology in interpreting their shapes and structures.
3. Forest Ecology
This science is similar to the science of silvika which studies vegetation and its environment on the influence of plant shapes and structures. Silvika studies environmental factors for limited plant species and ecology studies forests in their entirety.
4. Silvika
This science is similar or equivalent to the science of forest ecology. Because silvika is a branch of ecology that studies the life of trees in the forest and the history of life and the general characteristics of trees and stands for environmental factors. So, silvika is the study of the history of life and the general characteristics of trees and forest stands in relation to environmental factors.

Silvicists view forests as a complex form composed of vegetation units associated with different habitat factors. A silvika expert will always connect forest vegetation with its influence on the environment. Forest as a whole is influenced by environmental factors that create a quality place to grow from the productive capacity of the forest area.
5. Silviculture
It is a science and art of producing and maintaining forests by using silvika knowledge to treat forests and control their composition and growth. Silviculture is analogous to agronomy and horticulture in agriculture because it discusses ways to cultivate plants. Silviculture is divided into two parts, namely silvica and silviculture, in which silvica is the theoretical basis and silviculture is implemented in the field. Such a tree will be able to live and develop if it is planted in a chosen site and must be planted vegetatively or generatively.
6. Wood Measurement
It is a study of the mass of standing wood and the amount of wood that can be cut down, so that it does not endanger the principle of sustainability.
7. Inventory
It is a science to find out the potential of the forest in question and its various economic, environmental and social functions and the value of its resources as a good and sustainable forest planning.
8. Interpretation of Aerial Portraits
A particular science that collects important data for forest inventory and planning. From this survey a rough picture of the condition and distribution of each type of vegetation can be obtained, especially the distribution and extent of the forest, its stand mass or density, and estimates of important plant species.
9. Watershed Management
A science that studies the benefits of forests related to the micro and macro properties of wood such as defects, physical characteristics, and chemical chemistry.
One type of environment that we must preserve is forest. Forest is a very important environment because of its many benefits such as holding water, natural shelter, and others.
definition of forest and forestry definitions with examples of forest types.
Forest also has many types, where the forest type is divided into three parts which are distinguished depending on the composition of the tree species, the geographical location of the forest, and also the climate that influences the forest area.
Then we also hear the term forestry as a basis for understanding forest. Actually, what is the meaning of forest and forestry itself? In the following, I will discuss the full definition and definition of forests and forestry and their benefits.
In general, the forest is a place that has various types of dense plants including trees, grass, bushes, mushrooms, ferns, etc. that occupy a very wide area.
The function of forests in general is as a habitat for animals or plants, a place to recycle carbon dioxide (carbon dioxide sink), hydrological current modulator, and the best place for soil preservation and forests are one of the most important elements of the environment.

The essence of agricultural science is biology and economics

The essence of agricultural science is biology and economics
The agricultural sciences group studies agriculture with the support of its supporting sciences. the core of agricultural science is biology and economics. Because agriculture is always bound by space and time, supporting sciences, such as soil science, meteorology, agricultural inauguration, biochemistry, and staticka, are also studied in farming farming (farming) is a core part of agriculture because it involves a set of activities carried out in aquaculture. farmer is a term for those who run a farming business, for example “vegetable farmers” or “fish farmers”.
livestock farmers are specifically referred to as breeders agricultural science began with the work of gregor mendel in the field of genetics, but modern agricultural science can be said to begin in the 18th century when chemical fertilizers affected plant physiology and developing countries, often referred to as green revolution, which is the progress made in selecting and improving plant quality and livestock for high productivity, also the use of additional inputs such as fertilizers and pesticides (Maisuma Literature Reviews).
Agriculture in a broad sense includes all activities that involve the use of living things (including plants, animals, and microbes) for the benefit of humans.
In the strict sense, agriculture is also defined as the cultivation of certain types of plants, especially those that are seasonal
Agricultural business is given a special name for a particular farming subject. Forestry is a farming business with a plant subject (usually a tree) and is cultivated on semi-wild or wild land (forest). Farming uses the subject of dry land animals (especially all vertebrates except fish and amphibians) or insects (e.g. bees)
Fisheries have the subject of aquatic animals (including amphibians and all non-vertebrate aquatic). An agricultural business can include these subjects together for reasons of efficiency and increased profits.
Consideration of environmental sustainability brings aspects of conservation of natural resources to become part of the business agriculture
All agricultural businesses are basically economic activities so that they need the same basic knowledge of managing business premises, seed selection, cultivation methods, yield collection, product distribution, product management and packaging and marketing. If a farmer views all of these aspects with consideration of efficiency in order to achieve maximum profits, it engages in intensive farming.
Agricultural business which is seen in this way is known as agribusiness. Programs and policies that direct agricultural businesses to such perspectives are known as intensification. Because agriculture always implements intensive agriculture, both often likened.
As a business, agriculture has two important characteristics: it always involves goods in large volumes and the production process has a relatively high risk. These two characteristics arise because agriculture involves living things in one or several stages and requires space for the activity and a certain period of time. in the process of production, some forms of modern agriculture (eg hydroponic algal cultivation) have been able to reduce these characteristics.
agricultural science includes research and development in the fields of:
1. Production method (eg management function, recommended nitrogen input)
2. increasing agricultural productivity in terms of quantity and quality (selection of drought-resistant plants and animals, development of new pesticides, yield sensing technology, plant growth simulations, cell culture in vitro)
3. conversion of primary products into consumption materials (ranging from production, preservation, and packaging)
4. prevention and repair of environmental damage (soil conservation, soil degradation, waste management, bioremediation)
5. Theoretical production ecology, related to plant production modeling
6. Improvement of subsistence agriculture which feeds most of the poor people in the world. This system attracts attention because maintaining integration with natural ecological systems is better than industrial agriculture, which may be more sustainable than modern agricultural systems.
7. Food production based on global demand
Understanding the land is very diverse and depends on the field of science that evaluates it. The definition of land based on legal experts will be different from the definition of land according to economists, financial / banking institutions, and housewives. Land according to legal experts is assessed based on the status of land or ownership rights to land, such as land with different ownership rights with land with rights to use rights (HGU) and use rights and very different from arable land.
Land according to economists and banking financial institutions is understood based on the proximity of the location of the land with access and smooth access and proximity to the development center. Land near the road or near the development center has a higher economic value than land that is located far from the access road or far from the development center. Different from the definition of land according to housewives who always remind their children not to play with the land and always remind their children not to forget to wash their hands and feet when they get hit by the ground.
Understanding of soil learned in the Basic Soil Science course is based on agricultural science. The definition of land according to agricultural science has also been developed over time.
Changes to the definition are presented as follows:
In 2005 a doctor of soil science from Indonesia named Hanafiah defined the soil more comprehensively that the soil is the surface layer of the earth that physically functions as a place to grow and develop the roots of plants to grow upright and supply water and air needs; chemically functions as a storehouse of nutrients and a source of supply of nutrients or nutrients (includes: simple organic and inorganic compounds and essential elements such as N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn, B, and Cl ); and biologically it functions as a habitat for biota (organisms) that actively participates in the supply of these nutrients and additives (growth promoters, protection) for plants, all of which are integrally able to support soil productivity to produce biomass and good production of food plants, medicinal plants medicine, plantation industry, and forestry.

The idea of education based on local wisdom

The idea of education based on local wisdom
The idea of local wisdom-based education began with an expression conveyed by Jhon Naisbit which was then responded to and developed by some social experts with the expression think globaly acts localy (think globally and act locally). The purpose of the phrase is, a person can take any experience and knowledge, from any ethnicity and any nation, but in its application in an action when someone is in a place, then he must adjust to the values and culture that is in that place.
With the existence of global knowledge, a person will be able to easily read and recognize a problem and solve it. Therefore one needs to be knowledgeable so that insights become relatively broad. However, in terms of education in general and teaching and learning in particular, an educator is not enough just to be knowledgeable and broad-minded, but to reflect the transfer of knolage (learning process) must also be accompanied by emotion skills (emotional ability) that is how an educator must be able to enter the world where the students are (Tania Knowledge).
In the problem above, there is one thing to remember: yaitu a student who comes to a class in a school is not like an empty glass, but they have brought knowledge and habits from where he lives.
In other words, the environment which is the residence of one anal student, is different from the environment where another student lives.
Thus it is certain that their social and economic status must also vary. Likewise in the local community, in a local community that one, will certainly be different from other local communities. That is why in the world there is a slogan, the meaning of the slogan is that even though we come from different ethnic groups and different cultures, we have a unity.
From the words of the motto mentioned above it can be concluded that the state does already have a lot of local people who of course have different cultural diversity.
Therefore it is of course that the American state actually has a cultural wealth that can certainly give a color and style that can be developed into a national character.
Local wisdom-based education is actually a form of reflection and realization of the Government Regulation on National Education Standards, namely the article explaining that the education unit level curriculum, or other forms of equal development are developed in accordance with the education unit, regional potential, socio-culture, and students.
Local wisdom is a broad and comprehensive phenomenon.
The scope of local wisdom is quite numerous and varied so that it is difficult to be limited by space. Traditional wisdom and wisdom are now different from local wisdom. Local wisdom places more emphasis on the place and locality of the wisdom so that it does not have to be a wisdom that has been passed down from generation to generation.
Local wisdom can be wisdom that has recently emerged in a community as a result of its interaction with the natural environment and its interactions with other communities and cultures.
Therefore, local wisdom is not always traditional because it can encompass present-day wisdom, and because it can also be broader in meaning than traditional wisdom. To distinguish local wisdom that has just emerged from local wisdom that has long been known by the community, the term wisdom can be used now, new wisdom, or contemporary wisdom. Traditional wisdom can be called first wisdom or old wisdom.
Based on the time of appearance above, wisdom will come in various categories. There are at least two types of local wisdom, namely: (a) classical, old, traditional, and (b) new local wisdom, contemporary, contemporary.
This category includes various things and is very fluid in form. That is, the old and new terms often change.
In terms of its basic philosophy, wisdom can be categorized in two aspects, namely: (a) ideas, thoughts, intellectual minds that are abstract, and (b) local wisdom in the form of concrete things, can be seen. Local wisdom category (a) includes a variety of knowledge, views, values and practices of a community both obtained from previous generations of the community and those obtained by the community today, which are not from previous generations, but from various experiences in the present, including from contact with other communities or cultures. Local wisdom category (b) is usually in the form of artifact objects, which adorn human life, and have symbolic meaning.

Local Wisdom Based Education

Local Wisdom Based Education
Education is a deliberate and planned effort to foster the development and potential of an individual’s ability to benefit his life interests both as individuals and in community members. We learn to know what is in this world for individual or universal progress. Learn to give, learn to accept, learn to be patient, learn to respect, and learn to respect. Education can improve human resources as an educational subject.
One decentralization of education is curriculum decentralization. The Ministry of Education and Culture only determines the minimum standards that must be met by the education unit at the regional level (Pan Education).
The minimum standards are in the form of graduate competency standards, content standards, evaluation standards, and facilities and infrastructure standards. Further development of these standards was left to their respective regions. With the decentralization of the policy, the regions can develop their regional potential according to local conditions and conditions. One policy that can be developed is to create a school curriculum based on local excellence or local wisdom.
Local wisdom is part of the culture of a society that cannot be separated from the language of the community itself. Local wisdom (local wisdom) is usually passed down from generation to generation through word of mouth. Local wisdom is in folklore, proverbs, songs, and folk games.
Local wisdom as a knowledge found by certain local communities through a collection of experiences in trying and integrated with an understanding of the culture and natural conditions of a place (Padmanugraha, 2010: 12).
Each region has the advantage of potential areas that need to be developed even better. The advantages of each region vary greatly. With the diversity of the potentials of this region it needs special attention for local governments so that children are no strangers to their own regions and understand correctly about the potentials and values and culture of their own areas in accordance with the guidance of the global economy.
In the midst of the vortex of the influence of global hegemony, the phenomenon that has also made educational institutions seem to lose space. In addition it also makes students’ understanding of the depletion of local history and cultural traditions that exist in society. Therefore, it would be better if we strive for ways that we can preserve the diversity of cultures that we have and we preserve together. With education based on local wisdom, we can be optimistic that education will be able to give meaning to the lives of people.
This means that education will then be able to become a spirit that can color the dynamics of people going forward.
Our national education must be able to shape people of high integrity and character so that they can produce great and dignified children of the nation in accordance with the spirit of education, which is to humanize humans. When we see from its understanding, local wisdom and local excellence have a relationship, namely local wisdom is a human policy in developing local excellence that relies on traditionally institutionalized values, ethics, ways and behaviors.
Local wisdom (local wisdom) can be understood as local ideas that are wise, full of wisdom and good value embedded in the community and followed by the community. Local wisdom is a conceptual idea found in people’s lives and continues to grow and develop in a community awareness that serves to regulate the life of the community. Local wisdom usually develops in the community through oral traditions such as the language song found in the world.
The hallmark of local wisdom itself is being able to withstand external or new cultures and have the ability to accommodate foreign cultural elements.
National identity is one form of national character development, identity has the meaning of a nature, character, reason, sense, intention, will, enthusiasm, strength contained in human souls as a result of the process of learning about broad and emerging cultural values in behavior or action.
So the national self, especially, has a characteristic that is certainly able to distinguish it from other national identities. However, as the social changes of the nation’s identity, which was originally typical, gradually fade. The distinctive identity possessed by the people for many years includes religious, humanist, naturalist, open, democratic, nationalist, patriotic, and fair, professional, cultural-minded, artistic-minded, and others.
But along with the development of these uniqueness increasingly faded. How to overcome the fading of national identity, among others, by strengthening ideology and nationalism through various activities such as flag ceremonies, development of science and technology advances with faith, preventing the spread of drugs, alcohol and so on, loving domestic products, and finally by preserving and preserving values and norms in society begin early on through multicultural education.

Agriculture is the activity of utilizing biological resources

Agriculture is the activity of utilizing biological resources
Agriculture is the activity of utilizing biological resources carried out by humans to produce food, industrial raw materials, or energy sources, as well as to manage their environment. The activities of utilizing biological resources included in agriculture are commonly understood by people as plant cultivation or farming (English: crop cultivation) and raising livestock, although their scope can also be in the use of microorganisms and bioenzymes in processing advanced products, such as making cheese and tempeh, or merely extraction, such as fishing or forest exploitation.
The majority of the world’s population earns a living in fields within agriculture, but agriculture only accounts for 4% of world GDP. History of Agriculture since the colonial period until now can not be separated from the agricultural and plantation sectors (Blog Papers Information), because these sectors have a very important meaning in determining the formation of various economic and social realities of people in various areas of Agriculture.
Based on 2018 data, agriculture in agriculture provides employment for around 44.3% of the population although it only accounts for around 17.3% of total gross domestic income. The agricultural science group studies agriculture with the support of its supporting sciences. The essence of agricultural sciences is biology and economics. Because agriculture is always bound by time and space, supporting sciences, such as soil science, meteorology, agricultural machinery, biochemistry, and statistics, are also studied in agriculture. Farming (farming) is a core part of agriculture because it involves a set of activities carried out in aquaculture.
Farmers are the names of those who run farming, for example “tobacco farmers” or “fish farmers”. The perpetrators of livestock farming (livestock) are specifically referred to as breeders. Agriculture in a broad sense includes all activities that involve the use of living things (including plants, animals, and microbes) for the benefit of humans. In a narrow sense, agriculture is also defined as the activity of utilizing a plot of land to cultivate certain types of plants, especially those that are seasonal. Agricultural business is given a special name for the subject of certain farming. Forestry is a farming business with the subject of plants (usually trees) and is cultivated on semi-wild or wild land (forest). Animal husbandry uses the subject of dry land animals (especially all vertebrates except fish and amphibians) or insects (eg bees).
Fisheries have a subject of aquatic animals (including amphibians and all non-aquatic vertebrates). An agricultural business can involve these various subjects together for reasons of efficiency and increased profits. Consideration of environmental sustainability results in aspects of conserving natural resources also become a part of agricultural business. All agricultural businesses are basically economic activities that require the same basic knowledge of business place management, seed selection, cultivation methods, product collection, product distribution, product processing and packaging, and marketing. If a farmer views all of these aspects with consideration of efficiency in order to achieve maximum profit, he is engaged in intensive farming. Agricultural business which is seen in this way is known as agribusiness.
Programs and policies that direct agricultural businesses to such perspectives are known as intensification. Because industrial agriculture always implements intensive agriculture, the two are often equated. The opposite side of industrial agriculture is sustainable agriculture. Sustainable agriculture, also known by its variations such as organic agriculture or permaculture, includes aspects of the sustainability of land carrying capacity as well as the environment and local knowledge as important factors in calculating its efficiency.
As a result, sustainable agriculture usually produces lower returns than industrial agriculture. Today’s modern agriculture usually implements some of the components of the two “ideological” poles of agriculture mentioned above. In addition to both, also known forms of extensive agriculture (low input agriculture) which in the most extreme and traditional forms will be subsistence farming, which is only done without business motives and solely to meet the needs of themselves or their communities.
As a business, agriculture has two important characteristics: it always involves goods in large volumes and the production process has a relatively high risk. These two characteristics arise because agriculture involves living things in one or several stages and requires space for the activity and a certain period of time in the production process. Some forms of modern agriculture (for example algae cultivation, hydroponics) have been able to reduce these characteristics but most of the world’s agricultural businesses still remain that way.